We begin with شُروع کَردَن(shurūʿ kardan, pronounced “sho-ru kar-dan”), meaning, “to begin, start, commence.” کَردَن (kardan) serves as an auxiliary noun; on its own it means “to do, to make,” and so when paired with noun X it means “to do X.” In this case, it makes the noun شُروع, meaning “beginning, start, commencement” into a compound verb.
Note for future reference that the -dan (or -tan) ending on a verb stem denotes the infinitive.
I am starting a new job today. = اِمروزکاری نُو شُروع می کُنَم (Imrūz kārī nuw shurūʿ mī kunam, pronounced “em-ruz kar-ee no sho-ru mee kon-am”).
Persian verbs generally fall at the end of the sentence.
We learn a new wrinkle here, which is that the alef may, at the beginning of the word, serve as a seat for any of the three short vowels. When it is intended to serve at the beginning of the word as the long “a” sound it serves as in the middle or at the end of a word, it will be marked with what is called a “madde” above it, like so: آ.
Also, we learn the present/present progressive form of the verb, which takes the infinitive, reduces it to its present stem (which in this case is کن-, or kun-, but in general you just need to learn present stems as you learn the verbs as there’s not really a pattern to them), then adds an ending denoting voice (-am being the first-person singular). Then it adds the particle می or mī right before the verb to mark it as present/progressive.
In the phrase “a new job” or کارِ نُو (kār-i nuw, the short “i” vowel acts as a connector between the noun and its adjective), a long “ī” is added to kār (making it kārī or کاری) to mark that it is indefinite, i.e., a job and not the job.
Related is the verb شُروع شُدَن (shurūʿ shudan, pronounced “sho-ru sho-dan”), meaning “to be started.” شُدَن or shudan is another auxiliary verb; on its own it means “to become,” but in compound forms like this it replaces kardan in any verb formed with “noun+kardan” and changes the verb from the active to the passive voice.
شُروع derives from (is the verbal noun of) the Arabic verb شَرَعَ (sharaʿa), which I mentioned in today’s Arabic word of the day entry. It can mean “to begin” in Arabic, but more often means “to go in, enter into.” It has a very famous derivation, but you’ll have to click over to see what it is.