کردن = “to do”

Today’s word is کَردَن (kardan), meaning “to do” or “to make,” and I made it our second word because it’s so invaluable in forming many other verbs (in fact, it was necessary for forming yesterday’s verb, if you recall). Like our Turkish word of the day, etmek, kardan is much more frequently found in compound verbs than on its own, acting as an auxiliary to turn a noun into a verb meaning “to do [that noun].” For example, کار کَردَن (kār kardan) means “to work” and فَکر کَردَن (fakr kardan, from the Arabic فَكَرَ, fakara “to contemplate, think”) means “to think.”

Examples:

“He (she, it) did something.” = چیزی کَرد (chīzī kard)

چیز or chīz means “thing,” and the indefinite marker “-ī” imparts the sense of “something.” We also see here how to form the past tense of the verb, by dropping the “-an” ending from the infinitive to leave the past stem. Adding nothing to the past stem marks this as a third person singular past verb; other persons and/or plurals add endings to the past stem.

“Yesterday I worked at the library.” = دیروز دَر کِتابخانه کار کَردَم. (Dīrūz dar kitābkhānah kār kardam, “Dee-rooz dar ke-tab-kha-ne kar kar-dam”)

Singular first person past tense adds an “-am” ending to the past stem. Kitābkhānah is literally “book house,” since khānah means “house,” and dar means “in” or “at.” Dīrūz, you’ve likely figured out, means “yesterday.”

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