How are you? = حالِ شُما چِطَور است؟ (ḥāl-i shumā chiṭawr ast, “haal-e-sho-maa-che-tour-ast”), literally “How is your (formal-plural, always used in this case) situation/condition?” “Ḥāl” (condition, situation) is taken from Arabic.
Unlike Arabic, Persian uses its “to be” verb, بودَن (būdan), in the present tense, but it has a very irregular present form: هَست (hast), or possibly است (ast) in third person singular.
What’s up? /What’s new? = چه خَبَر؟ (chi khabar, “che-kha-bar”), literally “what’s the news?” “Khabar” is the singular form of the Arabic akhbār, meaning “the news.”