Sorry for taking such a long break. Life just keeps getting in the way, and also we’ve got some more grammar to cover fairly soon and psychologically I think I’m avoiding that. But here’s something that’s grammar-free, mostly: the days of the week. The Persian word for “day” is روز (rūz), and while the full names of the days can be rendered as روز plus the appropriate name from the list below, this is rarely seen.
- Monday = دوشَنبه (dūshanbah, but pronounced “dou-shaM-beh,” because Persian doesn’t like that N-B sound so it changes the N to an M in speaking)
- Tuesday = سَهشَنبه (sahshanbah, “se-shaM-beh”)
- Wednesday = چِهار شَنبه (chihār shanbah, “che-har-sham-beh”)
- Thursday = پَنج شَنبه (panj shanbah, “panj-sham-beh”)
- Friday = جُمعه (jumʿah, “jom-eh”)
- Saturday = شَنبه (shanbah, “sham-beh”)
- Sunday = یَکشَنبه (yakshanbah, “yek-sham-beh”)
Except for Friday (which comes right from Arabic and signifies Friday’s role as the day for large congregational prayer) and Saturday, these names are all created by simply adding a cardinal number (more on those later) to شَنبه (“Saturday”), so Sunday is literally “one شَنبه,” Monday “two شَنبه,” and so on.
“Week” is هَفته (haftah, “haf-te”) from هَفت (haft) or “seven,” and “days of the week” is روزهای هَفته (rūzhā-yi haftah, “ruz-ha-ye-haf-te”).
The weekend in Iran and in Afghanistan, where the Dari dialect of Persian is an official language, is Thursday-Friday, but Thursday may be considered a half-day of work depending on where you are and for whom you’re working.