Winter has been very hit or miss this year here in Chicago, but it’s in full force this week, so I figured these would be appropriate:
Winter = زَمِستان (zamistān, “za-mes-taan”), which certainly looks like it could be related to the Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Serbian, Czech, Croatian, Slovakian, etc.) зима or zima, but don’t quote me on that. Winters in Iran vary quite a bit depending on where you are, from mild along the Gulf and Caspian coasts to quite severe in the western Zagros Mountains.
Cold = سَرد (sard). However, in Persian you do not say “I am cold”; literally you say “my coldness is,” (i.e., my coldness exists) or سَردَم است (sardam ast), and instead of asking “Are you cold?” you ask, “Is your coldness?” (does it exist?) or آیا سَردید است؟ (Āyā sardīd ast?). آیا has no translation and is a marker to denote that you are asking a (yes/no) question and not making a statement; you can accomplish the same effect with tone of voice, but adding the marker makes it unequivocal. Another less likely possibility is (khunuk), meaning “cold” or “frigid.”
Snow = بَرف (barf, believe it or not). Unfortunately for cross-cultural purposes, the word has also come to suggest anything that is made up of white flakes, like, for example, powdered dish or laundry detergent. This gives rise to one of the great Iranian consumer products, Barf Detergent. بَرف باریدَن (barf bārīdan) is technically the verbal form, “to snow,” but this is rarely encountered and instead of sentences like “it is snowing,” you’ll see sentences like “there is snow” or بَرف است (barf ast, literally “snow is”).
Rain = باران (bārān) or بارِش (bārish), with the verb باریدَن (bārīdan), “to rain” or perhaps “to precipitate” (meteorologically speaking).
Ice = یَخ (yakh). The verb “to freeze” is یَخ بَستَن (yakh bastan), incorporating بَستَن meaning “to bind” but also, more appropriately in this case, “to congeal.”
Coat = کُت (kut, “kot”), which I trust needs no explanation. A lighter outerwear option would be a ژاکِت (zhākit), which again I assume is self-explanatory.